BİLİM, FELSEFE VE AÇIK BİLİM DERGİSİ...


Hiç düşündünüz mü insanlar neden bilim dergileri okumak ister?

Bilimi yaşamada, bilimin hayatımız içinde anlamlı bir yer tutmasında felsefenin nasıl bir yeri vardır?

Bilim ve felsefe; iki ağır ve üzerinde halen yoğun tartışmaların sürdüğü alan. Gözlenen o ki; ne bilim felsefesiz ne de felsefe bilimi dışlayarak var olabiliyor. Genellikle, okuyucular bilimsel ya da felsefi bir yazıya başladıktan sonra, çoğu kez her ikisinde de kullanılan dilin ağırlığından; ifadelerin karmaşıklığından, konuların derinliğinden, bazen de uzunluğundan sıkılarak okumaktan vazgeçer.

Böylelikle bilim ve felsefenin günlük hayatımızı kolaylaştırabilecek, değiştirebilecek, kararlarımızı etkileyebilecek hazinelerini görmezden gelme tehlikesi ile karşılaşmış oluruz.

Bilim ve felsefeyi gündelik yaşantımız ile anlamlı bir ilişki içinde hayatımızda var edemez isek; her iki konuya da ön yargılı bir biçimde uzak kalmış oluruz. Bu noktada bilim biraz daha şansı görünmekte, çünkü popüler bilim dergileri; bilimi değişik yönleri ile ele alırken aslında bilimi günlük hayatımızda var etme yönünde önemli bir işleve sahiptir.

Belki de öncelikle başlanması gereken nokta; felsefi bir duyarlılığa sahip olmaya çalışmaktır. Bu da bilim dergileri okuyarak, bu dergilerdeki farklı konulara ait yazılarda nasıl araştırıldığını görerek, farklı düşüncelerin nasıl sınandıklarını gözleyerek sağlanabilir. Düşünme, nedenini sorgulama, merak, araştırma, eleştirel yaklaşım, gerçeği bulma düşüncesi işte bilim dergilerinin sağlayabileceği birkaç kazanım.

Okuyucular, okuduklarının kendilerinde, konunun tarihi, neden dolayı yapıldığı, sosyal ve kültürel yansımaları, toplumsal etkileri gibi sorular düşünüyorsa gündelik hayatta bilim ve felsefe ile iletişime geçilmiş demektir.

Felsefi bir duyarlılıkta hazırlanmış, keyifli bilim yazıları okumak isterseniz, benim de yeni yeni keşfettiğim, internet üzerinden yayın yapan Açık Bilim dergisini önerebilirim.

Yoğun bir emek, bolca çalışma, oldukça zaman harcanarak hazırlanmış olduğu açık olan, Açık Bilim Dergisine yanda verilen dergi logosunun üzerinden ulaşabilirsiniz.

Her geçen gün bilim sayesinde yeni bir şeyler öğrendiğimiz dünyamızı anlamaya, açıklamaya çalışan evrensel bilgiler verdiği gibi, aynı zamanda bilimin gündelik hayatımıza yansıması olan teknolojinin sosyal ve toplumsal boyutlarını da inceleyen Açık Bilim dergisine; bilginin yayıldıkça büyümesine yaptığı katkıdan dolayı hem teşekkürler, hem de yayın hayatında uzun soluklu olması dileklerimle…


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26 Ocak 2010 Salı

ECOLOGIC EVALUATION OF Pistacia lentiscus (MASTIC) IN ÇEŞME PENINSULA

Şenol Boztok
senolboztok@yahoo.com
Ege University Agricultural Research Center

Burçin Çokuysal
burcin.cokuysal@ege.edu.tr
Ege University Faculty of Agriculture Soil Science Department

ABSTRACT

The ecologic evaluation of Pistacia lentiscus (mastic) was investigated in Çeşme Peninsula. Mastic cultivation was previously done in Çeşme Peninsula but today is forgotten some reasons. In order to benefit from this valuable species again, short and long term practices can be recommended. The recommendation for the short term is to prune P. lentiscus plants which develop naturally in bush forms in the Aegean–Mediterranean coast belts and to transform them into the form of a tree. Through this practice, secretion of mastic will start producing within 3-4 years. In the long term, a new orchard may be established with saplings of the cultivated form of P. lentiscus. Under these conditions the start of mastic production may take 8-10 years. Being very beneficial for human health and economically so valuable, this plant must be taken into consideration in ecological planning projects.

Key words: Pistacia lentiscus L., Mastic, Essential oil, Ecological planning

INTRODUCTION

Pistacia lentiscus, an Anacardiaceae Family member, is a Mediterranean natural plant. It is known that this economically valuable plant is used, for essential oils in its resin, leaves and fruits, as drug against various maladies since before Christ. Nowadays it is an essential raw material for medicine industry. Also, it is used as cover to protect art works and in food industry.

In Turkey, it is spread in a wide area from İstanbul Pass along Egean–Mediterranean Coasts to İskenderun (Davis, 1967). It is also seen in Middle Anatolia up to a certain altitude. Despite, our country does not benefit economically from this plant. From economical point of view, its production is performed only at Chios Island. However, Egean–Mediterranean Coasts especially Çeşme Peninsula have convenient environmental conditions to benefit from the resin of Pistacia lentiscus. Southern Chios Island where mastic tree is cultivated has similar features as Çeşme Peninsula. Soft limestone and calcareous soils, warm Mediterranean climate without frost, humid sea wind are appropriate environmental conditions for mastic production.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

Pistacia lentiscus, being benefited from its resin, is a warm climate plant and likes places protected from strong wind. High temperature values in summer negatively affect mastic yield. It likes calcareous stony deep soils. With its deep root system, it is resistant to drought; however plant growth under irrigation is faster. But, water becoming a puddle in root rot harms the plant. For this reason sloping surfaces are ideal for its growth. Its tolerance to salt is at good level. Its development is good even at coastal areas. With its deep roots and thick leaf texture it is a perfect solution against water and wind erosion (Bailey, 1963; Boztok, 1999; Gratani, 1995; Hamlyn, 1969; Pericos, 1993). In extreme conditions like fire, it has best renovation speed within plants. With this property it is called as immortal plant.

Pistacia lentiscus having normal height of 5-6 m blossoms between March and April. It has dioiceus character. Male plants produce more resin then females and their resin solidify faster. With its always green nature it can be easily identified from other varieties of Pistacia genus. Generally it posses 2-4 leaflet, but there exist forms with 3-5-7 leaflet. There is no specified standard for leaflet number. Leaflet shape is either oblong or oblong-lanceolat and their leaf extremity is hard (mucronat). Leaf axis is winged. There exist different forms according to leaflet number and shapes. As Browicz (1987) and Zohary (1952) mentioned, these variations do not bring a partitioning at variety level. One plant may posses different leaf shapes during its different phases of vegetation. Even lower and upper leaves of a plant may be different from each other. Also, leaf shape of plants pruned from their bush form alters (Boztok and Zeybek 2004). Browicz (1987) states that cultivated forms in Chios Island are more cultivars then variety selected according to yield. Some researchers point only “Chia” variety in Chios Island to be used to obtain resin. However Bailey (1963) states that, apart from variety and form differentiation, species belonging to Anacardia family produces same quality of resin. Also Boztok and Zeybek (2004) indicate that some natural plants belonging to Pistacia genus have similar characteristic with the sample from Chios Island in terms of mastic resin quality. Hışıl et all. (2001) stated that Çeşme’s mastic and Chios Island sample have similar characteristics, by their project where they compared essential oil components of both samples.

The research was conducted at Çeşme-İzmir province of Turkey at 2003 on Pistacia lentiscus L. plants which are frequently found. All sites of plantations were visited and interviewed local public body; varieties of plants in plantation areas, plantation problems, and economic status of Pistacia in studied area were investigated for the determination of the ecologic evaluation of Pistacia lentiscus. Depending on results, interviews and literatures, some decisions on improving yield and productions were given based on effectiveness, economy and ecological balance.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Pistacia lentiscus is in bush form and naturally has the tendency of laying horizontally to the surface. It is not possible to benefit from its resin while plant has this form. Because, as Browicz (1987) indicates, resin is flow only fast in thick branches which gather more sunlight. So plants in bush form, widely available in nature and called wild by people, must be pruning appropriately. This fact is proved by a project performed with Çeşme Nature and Animal Protection Association at Çeşme Peninsula by the support of World Bank and United Nations Fund. At 2003, in another project performed by Ege University Center for Drug Research and Development and Pharmacokinetic Applications and supported by Ege University Science and Technology Center, it is proved that various pruned Pistacia lentiscus varieties, in naturally bush form, produce resin which has same quality like mastic brought from Chios Island (Boztok and Zeybek, 2004).

Pistacia lentiscus production may be performed by layering, grain, cutting, grafting and by micro production in in-vitro conditions. Production is supply a yield by grafting and layering in a shorter period. By appropriately pruning bush forms wildly available in nature trained in tree form with 2 - 3 bodies, yield may be obtained in 2-3 years. Also by grafting mastic into another wildly available plant Pistacia atlantica yield may be obtained still in 2-3 years. In orchards formed by planting saplings yield may be obtained from 5th – 6th years.

In order to obtain mastic plants are pruned at winter months. By removing excess branches it becomes possible for the plant to get sunrays and sea wind. Canopy is cleaned and leveled by removing grass and straws between May and June months. Diatoma is spread over soil at a few cm thicknesses and cylindered. In Çeşme conditions, resin collected at the cortex of branches with over 8–10 cm diameter is poured from scratches with 1-2 mm thickness over the shell. After 10–15 days mastic grains freeze and solidified are collected from the soil and second scratching is done. Next collection is performed after 10–15 days. In September about the end of season, resin over branches and body are collected. They are classified according to their sizes after washing them by cold water.

Mastic is used for the medical treatment of some disease since before Christ, by the acid isomasticadienonic, major and minor components found in its structure. 1-3 % of it is essential oil. The most important components of this essential oil are Alpha Pinen, Myrcen, Beta Caryophyllen, Limonene, Anethol and Alpha Humulene (Boztok and Zeybek, 2004).

Essential oil components obtained from mastic are generally at monoterpenic and sesquiterpanic structure. Monoterpens are known with their secrolitic, expectorant, sedative and tonic effects. Sesquiterpens, varying according to functional group in their structure, show anti-inflammatory effect. Phenylpropan components, being a very small portion of the essential oil, have antiseptic and cramp relaxing effects. It has inhibitor feature for Helicobacter pylori, which causes peptic ulcer, with its antiseptic effect and the support of monoterpens and other material groups. Its chewing, especially after meals, is important for mouth hygiene by means of its antibiotic effect (Zeybek, 1971). It is determined by Hussain and Tobji (1997) that Pistacia lentiscus’s ethanol extracts possess antibacterial effect against gram + bacterium. It is said that mastic is used against hypertension in Spain. In an experiment performed by Tassou and Nychas (1995) it is determined that by mastic addition to culture environment where Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomanas fragi and Salmonella enteridis is inoculated the activity of these bacterium stops. This effect is increased by ethylendiamine addition to the environment (Iuak et all., 1995).

Traditionally mastic was used as food protector, digestion facilitator and to cure other digestion disorders, tooth and mouth problems and control diabetes. In Europe it is used in ointments prepared to cure inflammations caused by burn, eczema and freeze and also to regulate cholesterol, trigliserid and blood pressure. In point of hygienic view it can be used to clean teeth and mouth. Medicine companies use mastic like tablets and capsules to produce self absorbed cord for surgical operation and injury bandages. Greeks add this material to drinks like “uzo” against possible stomach ache. Nowadays many researchers scientifically prove the positive effects of mastic against mouth and digestion system disorders. In a project performed at Athens University Faculty of Medicine the antibacterial and fungusidal effects of mastic and mastic oil are determined (Anonymous, 2002). Mastic has a big importance in food industry. It is used as protector in nourishment like ready-made soup. In Turkish cuisine mastic is added to various meal and deserts. Also drinks with mastic addition are interesting. Also it is used in soap production, which is used against dandruff (Üçer, 2004).

CONCLUSION

Mastic cultivation was previously done in Çeşme Peninsula but today is forgotten some reasons.
To benefit from this valuable plant again, some short and long term applications can be recommended. In short term, Pistacia lentiscus plants in bush form may be trained by appropriately pruning and 3-4 years after gaining a tree form its mastic may be used. Similarly, by grafting cultivated form of P. Lentiscus to naturally available P. Atlantica in bush form mastic may be secreted after 3–4 years.

In long term, a new orchard may be established with saplings of the cultivated form of Pistacia lentiscus. In this case mastic benefit may take 8–10 years. Orchard may be a closed plot of land or may be in form of boundary trees. In closed orchard, during the development of plants intercropping may be performed. In Cesme Peninsula, bulbaceous plants like anise, onion, artichoke, melon, narcissus etc. are within alternatives for intercropping.

P. lentiscus may be cultivated in mountainous areas and slopes that are not suitable for the cultivation of other plants are the natural habitat for these plants. Through mastic plantations, these areas may provide economical benefits to the producers.

Foreign currency paid for mastic importation, which is a general case, will be saved. Additionally, supporting other industries based on mastic will contribute to the economy.

It is possible to use mastic plants in landscaping since it is well adapted to the Mediterranean climate and soil conditions, and demonstrates a good development. The mastic trees may create an attractive arrangement in the coastal areas affected by the sea and slopes, with its decorative form. In addition to these properties, being evergreen and having the covering property, P. lentiscus may be used to prevent rain and wind erosion. Because of all these reasons, it has great help to the ecological balance.

Varieties of Pistacia lentiscus, naturally found as bushes need to be kept under protection in order to save the existing genetic resources. It is a very good alternative for the regeneration and reevaluation of damaged vegetations in regions having Mediterranean climate conditions. It possesses very important but omitted features for re-vegetation projects.

Being very beneficial for human health and economically so valuable, this plant must be taken into consideration in ecological planning projects.

REFERENCES

Anonymous, 2002. The Possible Benefits of Mastica, a Dietary Supplement. Allergy Research Group. 30806 Santana Street; CA 94544. www.AllergyResearchGroup.com
Bailey, L. H. 1963. The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture. The Macmillan Company. NEW YORK.
Boztok, Ş. 1999. Sakız Yetiştiriciliği. Ege Üniversitesi Tarımsal Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi. İZMİR.
Boztok, Ş., Zeybek, U. 2004. Pistacia Cinsine Dahil Bazı Doğal Bitkilerin Sakız Reçinesi Kalitesi Açısından İrdelenmesi, Gıda ve İlaç Sanayinde Değerlendirilmesi Üzerine Araştırma. Ege Üniversitesi Tarımsal Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi. İZMİR.
Browicz, K. 1987. Pistacia lentiscus cv.Chia (Anacardiaceae) on Chios Island, Pl Syst. Evol, 155: 189-195.
Davis, P. H. 1967. Flora Of Turkey. Edinburgh At The University Press. Vol. 2.
Gratani, L. 1995. Structural and Ecophysiological Plastcity of Some Evergreen Species of The Mediterranean Maquis in Response to climate. Photsynthetica. 1995, 31: 335-343; 30 ref.
Hamlyn, P. 1969. The Marshall Cavendish Encyclopedia Of Gardening. Marshall Cavendish Limited. USA.
Hışıl, Y., Şengün, P., İsfendiyaroğlu, M. 2001. Çeşme Damla Sakızı Bileşenlerinin GC/MS İle Analizi. II. Ulusal Kromatografi Kongresi. Kırıkkale Üniversitesi.
Hussain, H., Tobji, R.S. 1997. Antibacterial Screning of Some Libyan Medicinal Plants. Fitoterapia. 1997, 68: 5, 467-470; 13 ref.
Iauk, L., Ragusa, S., Rapisarda, R., Franco, S., Nicolosi, V.M. 1996. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Pistacia lentiscus L. Extracts: preliminary report. Journal-of Chemotherapy. 8: 3, 207-209, 12 ref.
Pericos, J. 1993. The Chios Gum Mastic. Print All Ltd. Graphic Arts. Athens, Greec. ISBN 960-85009-3-1
Tassau, C.C., Nychas, G.J.E. 1995. Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Mastic Gum (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia) on Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria in Broth and in Model Food System. Interational Biodeterioratio and Biodegradation. 1995, 36: 3-4, 411-420; 15 ref.
Üçer, M. 2004. Sakız ve Mutfak Kültürümüzde Damla Sakızı İle Yapılan Yiyecekler. Türk Mutfak Kültürü Üzerine Araştırmalar. Türk Halk Kültürü ve Tanıtma Vakfı Yayınları. Ankara.
Zeybek, N. 1971. Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Pistacia lentiscus und Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia aus Westanatolien.Swiss-Botanical Socety, Zurich –İsviçre
Zohary, M. 1952. A monographical study of the genus Pistacia, Palestine J. Bot., Jerusalem series, 5(4): 187.

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